BIBLICAL THEMES AND IMAGES IN ALEXANDER SOLZHENITSYN'S NOVEL THE FIRST CIRCLE (V KRUGE PERVOM)
Authors: Svetlana Alexeyevna Martyanova
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The author identifies, describes and interprets the biblical allusions in Alexander Solzhenitsyn's novel The First Circle (V Kruge Pervom). It is assumed that many of the biblical characters and stories, mentioned (Moses, Jesus Christ, Holy Mary, Mother of God, or Judas) or implied in the novel, are prototypical to its heroes and storylines. Biblical allusions form the overarching storyline (metaplot), and create the religious and philosophical perspective of understanding the value orientations and behavior of the characters. The article reveals the significance of the biblical context for understanding the moral and philosophical search of its heroes, their reflections on happiness, well-being, soul, conscience, friendship, creativity, truth, genuineness and authenticity of marxism as "leading-edge thinking". Special attention is given to the subject of Christmas: the article explains what it means for the formation of artistic time or images of individual characters (Volodin and Rubin), and draws a parallel betweem Stalin and Herod. It is emphasized that Solzhenitsyn as a writer did not copy reality, but portrayed it in light of the Bible and the Gospel ideal, creating the original concept of man's destiny in a totalitarian society and reintroducing to readers religious values, which were excluded from a human being by Soviet ideology.