Utilization of accident and emergency department at a semi-urban Nigerian hospital: a preliminary prospective study
Authors: Godpower Chinedu Michael1, Ibrahim Aliyu2, Ayuba Andesati3, Bukar Alhaji Grema1, Abubakar Mohammed Musa4, Rafiyat Bolanle Abu5, Hamisu Abubakar5, Haliru Ibrahim6, Emmanuel Edighotu7
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Objective: To assess emergency department utilization at a semi-urban (resource-limited)
Methods: A systematic random sampling technique was adopted. A proforma was used
to obtain general information such as age, gender, mode of transfer, time of presentation,
symptom duration, diagnoses, treatment duration, treatment outcome (transfer to the ward,
referral to another hospital, discharge or death) and date and time of discharge. Chi-square
test and logistic regression analysis were used to determine the association of variables with
mortality and predictors, respectively.
Results: Patients were predominantly male (62.2%) with a mean age of (36.0±19.0) years.
Most visits occurred in September (49.1%). The median symptom duration was 24 h (interquartile
range: 4.0, 72.0 ). More incidences were caused by non-surgical (61.9%) than surgical reasons.
Infectious diseases (predominantly malaria, 34.5%) and injuries from road traffic accidents
(mostly head injuries, 9.4%) were the commonest non-surgical and surgical cause, respectively.
The mortality rate was 9.2%. Typhoid-intestinal-perforation and sepsis contributed 45.2% of
overall mortality. Age (氈 2=16.44, P<0.001), symptom duration (氈 2=22.57, P<0.001), and
visiting month (Fishers exact, P=0.002) were associated with mortality. Moreover, age (≥37
years) (OR=4.60, 95%CI=1.96-10.82, P<0.001) and visiting in September/October (OR=4.01,
95%CI=1.47-10.93, P=0.007) were the predictors of mortality.
Conclusions: Though most patients in emergency department survive, the mortality is still
high. Appropriate hospital and community interventions should be implemented to reduce