The article substantiates that when commodity-capitalist relations of production are deliberately used by society for development of productive forces, they objectively act as productive forces of society while maintaining their materiality and objectivity. The case when the society uses relations of production just as the individual subject consciously uses means of production is analyzed. China’s modern economy is studied as the most extensive example of applying this principle in practice.
The article is devoted to the features of international medical tourism as a global segment of medical services. The most required by medical tourists types of treatment are considered. International medical tourism as a specific type of socially useful activity aimed at providing tourist services of medical and recreational nature in the form of temporary departure of an individual or group of persons abroad is explored. The methodology for calculating the medical tourism index is analyzed in detail. Based on the analysis of international experience, the most required by medical tourists types of treatment are identified. The main causes of the huge gap in the cost of medical services of the countries-leaders and states with newly-created markets are determined.
The article considers regional features of international migration in Europe, in particular, in the European Union and defines features of regional migration policy of the EU as an integration association. By results of analysis of Eurostat and the World Bank data the geographical structure of immigration and territorial distribution of migrants in the EU are defined. The dynamics of change in the human development index in the European Union at the stages of its enlargement is studied. It is identified that the EU enlargement reduced the average human development index in the alliance through the accession of countries with lower rates. The study analyzes the problems of external migration phenomenon development in Europe, including its advantages and disadvantages and related threats.
The article examines the main features inherent to meso-level of international integration formations representing network structures in intra-branch and inter-branch cooperation in the form of cross-border cluster systems encompassing macro-level and micro-level of integration of national economies. Possibilities of theory synthesis of international economic integration and cluster concept in economic area virtualization environment are revealed. Cluster approach is proved to be the most efficient mechanism to develop cross-border economic relations and represents, finally, a meso-level of competitive international integration systems and mandatory condition of quality advance for Ukrainian European integration. The essence and inner interrelations of cross-border network cluster are investigated as the growth factor of the European region competitiveness under the conditions of intensifying the integration processes and the necessity of enhancement of the role of periphery regions’ economy in the framework of cross-border cooperation. Within the context of European Union regional politics the strategic priorities of the spatial development of the European regions are stated on the basis of self-organization of “hybrid” network quasi integration institutions. Their role in the competitive recovery of the European regions in the light of Ukrainian perspectives of joining European Union is investigated.
The article considers the problems of value management tool formation that is adequate to modern management conditions in the mergers and acquisitions process of food industry enterprises. The main problems of non-public structures business valuation, to which the most domestic food enterprises are belong, are identified as a result of the monographic analysis. Highlighted problems require a theoretical and methodological solution. A theoretical basis for the business value toolkit of non-public companies for the purposes of the M&A market as the result of the empirical study is created. A methodical approach to determining discounts for the liquidity level of a business-purpose in mergers and acquisitions is proposed.
The conceptual approach to introduction of the client-oriented marketing at the enterprise in the sphere of entertainment and recreation is developed in the article. A step-by-step algorithm of implementation of client-orientation is formed and components of the each step are defined. Optimal tools for task resolution at different stages and in different functional area of implementation process of client-orientation are justified. It is proposed to use the methods of intramarketing, kaizen, work with points of contact, service-design, internal marketing and project management approach. The further directions of improvement and perspective researches of applied aspects of client-orientation implementation are defined.
The article considers financial and economic sustainability of enterprise from different perspectives, its types and factors that influence it. The approaches to the diagnosis of financial sustainability of the enterprise are briefly examined. The problems arising in carrying out of diagnostics of financial sustainability are determined. It is noted that it is possible to carry out the diagnostics of financial sustainability of the enterprise by means of cash flows. The study proposes to use cycles that can be characterized not only by the criteria of turnover, but also taking into account cash flows. It is proved that it is possible to conduct a diagnosis of financial sustainability using operational and financial cycles. Information provision for making the calculations is the financial statements of enterprise.
The article is devoted to topical issues of reforming the state mechanism of regulation of labor remuneration in Ukraine. The consequences of influence raising the minimum wage standard on the level of population incomes are investigated. It is determined that the existing methods for establishing state social standards require a new approach based on the real value of human resources in the labor market. It is proposed to use the average salary and the Kaitz index to calculate the social standard of the minimum wage. Recommendations to improve the mechanism of state regulation of labor remuneration in the direction of creating effective mechanisms of state guarantees and a balanced taxation system are formulated.
The article analyzes the dynamics of the main indicators characterizing the current state and trends of gender inequality in the labor market of Ukraine and Odessa region. The analysis of modern gender disparities is carried out. Practical recommendations on ways to ensure gender equality in the Ukrainian labor market are developed. The author found that gender segregation continues in the labor market of Ukraine and Odessa region, and employment rate and wages of women is lower than employment rate and wages of men. The implementation of gender priorities of employment policy is possible taking into account economic, social and institutional aspects. Ways to achieve gender parity in each component are proposed. Interrelation of these components and necessity of recommendations implementation simultaneously in all the dimensions are proven.
The economic fundamentals of the formation and accumulation of property as prerequisites for creating a base for wealth and its taxation are studied in the article. The primary forms of the wealth tax and their development in historical retrospective are reflected. The peculiarities of the wealth tax functioning in different countries of the world are considered on the example of European, Latin American and Asian countries. The dynamics of the wealth tax transformation is defined. The using of the wealth tax as a fiscal instrument in the state tax system is suggested.
The article proposes a scientific and practical methodology for planning of credit activity indicators of Ukrainian bank. As a result of the conducted research, it is substantiated: 1) the planning of the bank’s credit activity should determine future value of main indicators: size of loan portfolio (loans provided), costs of forming reserves for loans issued, interest income and the average interest rate on loans; 2) some calculated indicators are determined by other sections of the bank’s plan and enter the planning section of the bank’s credit activity as fixed values; 3) part of the values of the calculated indicators depends on the credit policy of the bank and can be determined by statistical methods or established as a subjective normative value (by decision of the bank’s governing bodies in accordance with the subjective assessment of the bank’s situation in the future); 4) the proposed methodology was tested using the example of Ukrainian bank.
The article considers the current state of pricing in Ukraine. The experience of developed countries with regard to increasing the efficiency of pricing and stabilizing domestic and external prices is studied. The tax system of Ukraine as a determining factor of inefficient national pricing is analyzed. The main problems of modern pricing and methods of state price regulation are determined, and ways of improving pricing in Ukraine are suggested. It is proposed to develop and legislatively adopt a national price strategy to ensure the interests of producers and consumers.
Development and application of goods «time preferences» concept in the economic theory are considered in the article. Mechanism of goods time preferences influence on formation of value in use that is value of these goods and relevant market-based pricing were studied. Overcoming artificial identification of goods value and cost concepts was proposed. It is shown that theoretical basis of goods time preferences have positive impact in goods use value theory cognition as well as in understanding of market-based pricing subjective factors and pricing mechanism.
The article analyzes entrepreneurship as a catalyst for the economy development in terms of the prospects for sustainable development. It is justified that development of entrepreneurship in the smart economy is achieved by a comprehensive modernization and innovative updating of business on the basis of a new generation of technologies; providing high value-added, energy efficiency; forming a secure environment and social stability. It is proposed to stimulate entrepreneurship in order to promote stable development of economy by understanding the mechanism of increasing social concerns about the working conditions, social welfare and the environment security and therefore providing the sustainable development strategy.
The article presents an analysis model of the cyclical nature of restructuring at wineries as a component of the implementation of their anti-crisis restructuring process. The activity of wine industry enterprises of the Odessa region in 2005–2014 is investigated. The sequence of modeling of the crisis phenomena analysis at the researched wine industry enterprises in the Odessa region is proposed. The given model allows: to estimate the time of the start of the anti-crisis restructuring processes, to reveal the trend of the analyzed financial indicators changes; to determine the critical points that serve as an indication of the need for restructuring; to predict the enterprise’s assets values and to make appropriate management decisions, that is, scenarios for emerging from the crisis (restructuring scenarios).
The state of development of the innovation infrastructure elements in Ukraine is analyzed in the article. The basic programs for the innovation infrastructure formation and the trends that have led to incomplete formation, functionless and insufficient development of the innovative infrastructure are studied. The main problems which impede efficient formation and development of innovation infrastructure in Ukraine are identified. Key measures of enhance infrastructural support of innovation and technological development of the national economy are proposed. It is proved that the important tasks of the innovation process state regulation is to streamline the activities of existing innovation infrastructure facilities and coordination of processes of new institutions creation and development, their organizational and methodological support.
According to scenarios of recreational development forecasting the tools of the regulatory influence on the recreational industry, in particular the formation of the equilibrated recreational development program within the socio-economic changes at the territorial level are proposed in the article. Theoretical foundations of sustainable development conceptual factors analysis are generalized, relevant to recreation as an object of research. The regulatory policy in the recreational sphere is presented in the context of such priorities as: coordination and promotion of recreation at the national level; providing institutional support of small recreation businesses development etc. The regimes of stimulation and restrictions, particularly under the integrated forecasting scenario – the regime of promoting innovative and socially and environmentally directed recreational activities are considered.
The article considers and examines basic quality and safety management systems approved by the Global Food Safety Initiative. Fresh mushroom market of Western Europe and Ukraine are analyzed. Ukrainian mushroom industry was taken as an example to illustrate how European integration process effects on quality and safety management systems implementation in food industry. Suggestions of increasing competitive positions of domestic food products were given.
The article investigates the markets of baking and confectionery industries of Ukraine in general and Odessa city in particular. The necessity and benefit of subcontracting in above mentioned industries is substantiated. The specific criteria are applied and narrow segment of enterprises is studied. Possibilities of establishing subcontracting links between enterprises in indicated industries in Odessa city are analyzed. Large, small and medium-sized enterprises, which meet all the search conditions, are separately highlighted in analysis process. The article determines that the small and medium-sized enterprises have subcontracting opportunity with the large enterprises in the same region. Information posting of Odessa enterprises goods prices on subcontracting portal is proposed, that will allow finding the most profitable suppliers, stimulating competition between enterprises of same industry and reducing the margins on the goods.
The main problems of Ukrainian enterprises restructuring in conditions of unstable economy are identified and analyzed in the article. Content of the concept of «enterprise restructuring» is clarified. It is noted that the processes of structural transformations can be applied to both the successful existing enterprises, and to the loss-making. Restructuring is considered as an effective tool to overcome the crisis in the activities of economic entities, increasing productivity, competitiveness and enterprises value. As a result of the analysis the main problems that hinder the process of enterprises restructuring in Ukraine are identified and assessed. Recommendations to overcome the existing problems at the macro and micro level to create the conditions for qualitative strategic transformation and improve the efficiency of enterprise restructuring are made.
The article considers the main development trends of service sector enterprises in Ukraine. Structure of service sector enterprises and structure of service rendered in Ukraine were identified. The dominance of traditional types of services in Ukraine – transport services, trade and real estate transactions were traced. The trends of capital investment in the service sector with significant volumes of transport and trade are summarized. The dynamics of services export-import in Ukraine is considered. Attention is paid to the trends of increasing demand for services export and import, reflecting global trends. A global trend of the services growth in the structure of the developed countries economies with the dominance of the share of highly professional services associated with increasing the volume of innovation in the world is singled out.
The questions of intensification of Ukrainian regions socio-economic development are considered in the article. The principles of seaports functioning and development and increasing their competitiveness are formulated. The experience of international practice for sustainable development of port economy is analyzed. Problems that do not make possible to develop of domestic ports and to have a decent competitive area for handling and trans-shipment of cargo are identified. The evolution of ports «generations» according to UNCTAD is substantiated.
Authors’ interpretation of systemically important relationships of organizational culture and human resource management as crucial components of strategic management is determined in the article. Foreign and domestic scientists’ approaches to determination of importance and place of the organizational culture in achieving the organization goals in the market environment are studied. Different views on relation between these concepts are summarized. The using of specific categorical apparatus in definition of system relations of strategic management elements is substantiated. A list of long-term actions to implement modern approaches to the widespread application of strategic management in practices of Ukrainian organizations is proposed.
The article investigates the essence of the threat in relation to the financial and economic security of enterprise. The characteristic features and signs of threats to lose the financial and economic security are determined. The list of grouping attributes for risks classification and systematization of the threats to enterprises financial and economic security on the principle of taking into account significant differences between different threats is determined. On the basis of scientific approaches synthesis, the actual classification system of financial and economic security threats was formed, which allowed ranking of threats with a view to their most complete and accurate identification when constructing the system of enterprise financial and economic security. Within the framework of the above mentioned classification system, the grouping signs and types of threats to the enterprise financial and economic security that were proposed by the author, were considered.
The known approaches of the quantitative analysis of tourist services market are considered in the article, particularities of their application are compared. The reasons of the official statistical sources incompleteness in the tourism sector are highlighted. The adjustment method of the statistical information of sales volumes in the organized tourism regional markets is developed. Household survey data to determine the size of travel expenses are applied. Existing WTO methodology for calculating the share of cash expenditures of the population due to tourist consumption is used. The principle of travel expenses distribution between the organized tourism and backpackers is proposed. The actual capacity of organized tourism markets of Ukraine and Odessa region is determined. Tourism enterprises income structure in the region in accordance with the organizational forms of tourism is analyzed. The main tendencies of the Odessa region tourism market over the past four years are identified.
The main conditions of energy logistics development are presented in the article. The definitions of «logistics» and «energy logistics» are given. The features of energy flows are analyzed. The system of energy logistics principles is given. Reasons to use logistical approach in energy system management of enterprises are identified.
The need of the analysis of the enterprise environment with a view to achieve strategic goals is proved in the article. The major factors of external and internal environments of enterprises functioning are analyzed. The features of building of effective economic behaviour model based on a detailed analysis of the conditions that determine the specificity of such behaviour formation and demonstration are identified. Methodical aspects of determining the best option of enterprises economic behaviour taking into account the maximization of factors positive influence are proposed. The correlation of function optimum of the enterprises economic behavior with selected research methods using economic and mathematical instruments, expert evaluations is justified.
Development features and specifics of introduction of adaptive management systems in particular chaos theory are investigated in the article. The prerequisites that underlie the formation of the key ideas of adaptive management systems are analyzed. The provisions reflecting the dynamism and chaos of the modern socio-economic systems development are generalized. It is established that the most important postulate of the chaos theory is the denial of the prospects for the long-term planning by fragmentation of the system into its component parts and conducting a profound analysis of the behavior of each of them, and focusing attention on the system integrity and dynamics. The basic concepts of the chaos theory are considered and the possibility of their introducing in modern management practices is analyzed.
The article considers the modern state of Ukrainian dairy industry enterprises. The main indicators of the sector, the dynamics of milk and main dairy products prices in recent times are analyzed. The main factors affecting dairy industry activities in Ukraine and other countries of the world are studied. Priority measures necessary to improve the level of dairy industry development and Ukrainian enterprises entry the European market are proposed.
The article investigates the trends in the marketing communications development under the influence of the Industry 4.0. Particular attention is paid to the study of the relationship between virtual and real economic space through the Internet of things, in which modern firms are developing marketing activities. The advantages of integrated marketing communications (IMC) are defined as a fundamentally new approach in the development of marketing strategies. An increasing role of low-control sources of influence and dissemination of information is noted. Particular importance is given to the study of consumer behavior in the Industry 4.0. The transition to consumption individualization is the main trend in the formation of interactive two-way marketing communications.
The features of functioning of the financial market in modern macroeconomic conditions of Ukraine and these conditions influence on a choice of economic system development model as a whole and in particular financial system in the post-crisis period are considered in the article. The resource base of the financial market and the possibility of its transformation into investment capital to ensure sustainable development of the real sector of the Ukrainian economy is analyzed. It is proved that overcoming the crisis state should be sought in the expansion of investment demand based on the Keynesian school’s recommendations. The main directions for reforming the financial market and the basic goals of the state’s long-term strategy in the development of the capital market are proposed.
The main problems of Ukrainian budget policy organization and implementation at the present stage are investigated in the article. The features of the formation and implementation of budgetary process in the current economic conditions in Ukraine are analyzed. The factors of the budgeting program-target method introduction are determined. The policy in budget planning and administration field is retrospectively analyzed. The control indicators of budget policy formation and implementation are analyzed, where a number of unsolved problems are identified. Thus, as a result, ways of ensuring Ukrainian budget policy efficiency were identified, such as: coherence of state investment activity planning and forecasting within the framework of the state economic development strategy; improvement of budget expenditures planning mechanisms; legislative consolidation and institutional implementation of procedure for developing budget strategy; increasing transparency of public finances and strengthening the role of financial control in the public sector of the economy.
The article investigates the financial equilibrium for the purpose of distinction between its static and dynamic states, characteristics of their quantitative parameters, detection of display features, reasons for deviations from equilibrium conditions. The measures of balancing financial condition for enterprise sustainable development are grounded. Achieving the desired goal is implemented by using the following general scientific and specific research methods: dialectical approach, induction and deduction, ratio analysis, ranking and trend analysis. The financial condition of JSC «Motor Sich» for compliance with the conditions of static and dynamic financial equilibrium is analyzed. The reasons for deviations of financial condition of this enterprise from static and dynamic parameters of financial equilibrium are identified. The measures to achieve financial equilibrium of JSC «Motor Sich» in its static and dynamic forms are proposed, that will strengthen the enterprise financial capacity.
Description of describes a modern scientific and practical approach to determining the credit risk of legal entities on the basis of a logistic discriminant model is proposed in the article. It is justified that the calculations based on the proposed model assume the identification of intermediate indicators, which are formed depending on the calculated values of the enterprise financial condition indicators. The estimated artificial values of the model that are used to determine the level of credit risk, taking into account additional indicators determined by the bank independently are given. As a result of the study, it was proved that banks get the opportunity of non-repayment of their credit debts and are able to calculate the amount of credit risk by individual borrowers (taking into account the volume and liquidity of the security for credit), that is the subject to mandatory reservation by bank’s costs. Such an approach reinforces the requirements for loans provided by banks, but is not flexible enough in the face of significant changes in the country’s economic life.
The article substantiates the relevance of using information and analytical systems in economics and management. The necessary steps, mathematical and statistical methods, modern information technologies for ensuring the functioning of these systems and the sphere in which analytical reporting is carried out are indicated. The main purpose of modern IT-technologies in business analytics and a general algorithm for the operation of systems related to the Business Intelligence class, the basic principles of the work of decision support systems and data mining tools are analyzed. The architecture of a typical information and analytical decision support system based on OLAP-technologies and intelligent data analysis (Data Mining) is structured. Further directions of using information and analytical systems in combination with dynamic simulation models are determined.