Parasitic contamination of surface and deep soil in different areas of Sari in north of Iran
Authors: Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi , Ahmad Daryani , Nastaran Amani Kelarijani , Mina Eskandari Shahraki2 , Beheshteh Haghparast Kenari , Mohammad Saaid Dayer , Najla Hamidianfar , Fatemeh Ghaffarifar
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Objective: To study the parasitic contamination of soil in selected areas of Sari, north of Iran.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify all available parasites in surface
and deep soil. In this study 580 soil samples (278 deep soil and 302 topsoil samples) from
21 different locations were collected from pathways, parks, greenhouses, estates around the
city, cemetery, main squares, farmlands, fenced gardens and seashores. Depending on the soil
type, two samples were prepared, from surface and deep soil at the depth of 3 to 5 cm. After
performing various stages of preparation, including cleaning and washing, smoothing and
flotation, parasitic elements were examined microscopically and quantitative parasite counting
was done using a McMaster slide.
Results: The results showed that the highest rate of parasitic contamination was related to
nematodes larvae (26.11%). Other contaminants such as Entamoeba and Acanthamoeba
cysts, vacuolization Blastocystis hominis form, oocyte containing sporocysts, Toxascaris eggs,
nematoda larvae, Hymenolepis eggs, Ascaris eggs, Fasciola eggs, hookworm eggs, Toxocara
eggs, insects' larvae and other ciliated and flagellated organisms were also observed. The
results of this study showed that the highest contamination was found in public garden (25.80%)
both in surface (29.30%) and in deep soil (21.12%), while the lowest level of contamination
was observed in seashore surface soil (4.90%).
Conclusions: The results showed that soil can provide a potential medium for the spread of soil
transmitted parasitic diseases in the environment; therefore, preventive programs are needed.