ICHTHYOFAUNA OF WATER BODIES OF THE NATIONAL NATURE PARK “TUZLA LAGOONS” AND ITS COMMERCIAL FISHERIES EXPLOITATION
Authors: P. Shekk
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Purpose. To study of the current species diversity of fish fauna in the water bodies included in the National Park “Tuzla lagoons”, to assess the perspectives of their commercial fisheries exploitation.
Methodology. Collection of ichthyological material was performed in different seasons of 2011–2014 across the entire area of lagoons and coastal zone of the Black Sea included in the National Nature Park “Tuzla lagoons”. During commercial fish harvest, the material was collected from commercial fishing gear (gillnets, traps, hoop nets, beach seines). In fall, during the work of the fish catch-release channel, we analyzed the data describing the species composition, abundance and length-weight characteristics of fish migrating through the channel in the sea. We used the method of average representative sampling. During the closed period, ichthyologic material for the analysis was collected from the survey fishing gears. All catches were sorted by species composition. We recorded the total catch and the ratio of different species. Collection and processing of data were carried out using generally accepted methods.
Findings. It 2011–2014, 72 fish species belonging to 30 families were detected in waters included in the National Nature Park “Tuzla lagoons”: 58 species in the coastal zone of the sea, 28 species in Dzhenshei and Maly Sasyk, 31 species in Tuzla lagoons.
Among the fish detected in sea and freshwaters of the National Nature Park “Tuzla lagoons”, 6 species are listed in the Red Book of Ukraine, 7 are protected by Bern Convention, 4 are lusted in the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, and 16 species are listed in the Red Book of the Black Sea.
Before 2001, a mullet-rearing fish farm operated in Tuzla lagoons. Its fish productivity depended on the intensity and amounts of stocking which were determined by the regime of the work of lagoon–sea channels, state of natural food reserves, hydrometeorological conditions, and hydrochemical regime of water bodies.
In order to optimize the ecological condition of the lagoons, to preserve their unique ecological communities, current economic status, biological diversity of biota and high fish productivity, it is necessary to foresee the construction and operation of at least two fish catch-release channels in spring and beginning of fall in the marine streamer.
Originality. For the first time we carried out a study of the composition of fish fauna in water bodies included in the NPP “Tuzla lagoons”, assessed its current state and perspectives of its commercial fisheries exploitation.
Practical value. The obtained data will contribute to the preservation of biological diversity in water bodies of the NPP, to the improvement of the efficiency of their commercial fisheries exploitation.
Key words: National Nature Park “Tuzla lagoons”, fish fauna composition, distribution, fisheries exploitation.