A morphological and morphometric study of human calcanei and their articular facets
Authors: Vijay Laxmi, Ritu Mehra, Ravikant Sharma, N.S. Neki, Jaswinder Singh
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Introduction: Calcaneum is the longest, strongest and biggest of all the tarsal bones of the proximal row. Anterior and posterior articulations between the calcaneus and talus form a functional unit termed the talocalcaneal or subtalar joint. Talocalcaneal joint maintains eversion and inversion of the foot. Differences with respect to race, as well as individual characteristics, suggest that the articular facets play a key role in both static and dynamic kinetics of the foot and ankle.
Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out with 50 calcanei, 25 bones of right side and 25 bones of left side of unknown sex which were obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Amritsar. Any calcaneum looking pathological on general examination was discarded from the study. All the parameters were taken by using standard digital vernier calliper which is capable of measuring to the nearest of 0.01mm.
Aim: The study seeks to observe the variations in the morphology and morphometry of the talar articular facets on the superior surface of dry calcaneal bones of adult human.
Results: Type I - Fused anterior and middle talar facet with a separate posterior facet in 33 cases - 66% (Rt 18 cases - 36%, Lt 15 cases - 30%), Type II - Separate anterior and middle talar facet in 10 cases - 20% (Rt 5 cases - 10% , Lt 5 cases - 10%), ,with a separate posterior talar facet, Type III –Absence of anterior articular facet in 2 cases - 4% (Rt 1 case – 2%, Lt 1 case - 2%) and Type IV – All the three facets i.e. anterior, middle and posterior facets were seen on the superior surface of the calcaneus but anterior and middle facets incompletely separated from each other in 5 cases - 10% (Rt 1 cases - 2%, Lt 4 cases - 8%).
Conclusion: The individual and racial differences of the anatomic construction of calcaneal talar articular facets influence the static and kinetic dynamics of foot.