EFFECT OF GLYCAEMIC CONTROL ON PITUITARY GONADOTROPHINS OF TYPE 2 DIABETIC SUBJECTS IN ENUGU, NIGERIA
Authors: Maduka Ignatius C , Nnamdi Ngozika A
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Glycation is considered to be the main molecular basis of several diabetic complications.
Association between chronic hyperglycaemia and the development of long-term diabetic-specific
complications have been reported but are yet to be completely understood. In this study, the effect
of glycaemic control on pituitary gonadotrophins (FSH and LH) was evaluated in male and female
diabetics in Enugu, Nigeria. Two hundred and twenty four (240) diabetic patients (92 males and
148 females) within the age range of 31 – 73 years, who were receiving treatment, were randomly
recruited for the study. One hundred and thirty four (134) age- and sex-matched apparently healthy
volunteers (44 males and 90 females) were recruited as the control subjects. The study subjects
were grouped into three categories: Male population (40-72 years), Group A Female population
(<50 years) and Group B Female population (≥50 years). The impact of glycaemic control on
various parameters was evaluated by classifying the diabetic patients into 3 subgroups on the basis
of their HbA1c levels: Good (HbA1c < 7%), Fair (HbA1c 7 to 8%) and (Poor HbA1c > 8 %)
glycaemic status. Fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, FSH and LH were determined for all the subjects.
The results obtained revealed that the male diabetics had significantly lower (p<0.05) FSH levels
when compared with the control subjects. In the two groups of female diabetic subjects, the FSH
levels were significantly lower (p<0.05) when compared with their respective control subjects.
The glycaemic control evaluation and correlation of HbA1c with the gonadotrophins in the male
diabetic population show no statistically significant results. However, in the female diabetic
population, subjects with poor glycaemic status show significantly increased (p<0.001) LH levels
compared to those with good glycaemic control. In addition, in group B female diabetic population,
HbA1c gave significant positive correlation with both FSH (r=0.261, p=0.014) and LH (r = 0.338,
p<0.001). This suggests that there is a direct relationship between HbA1c and the gonadotrophic
hormones. As glycaemic control is compromised, these hormones tend to increase. This study
generally reveals increasing trend in the levels of the gonadotrophins across the different
glycaemic status. It can be concluded that good glycaemic control of diabetes can exert better
influences on pituitary gonadotrophins.