Effect of Zataria multiflora Essential Oil on Histamine Production in Iranian Salted-Fermented Fish Sauce (Mahyaveh)
Authors: A. Saffari1,2, B. Hajimohammadi1,2, E. Eftekhar3,4*, M.H. Ehrampoush2, S.S. Athari2,5 A. Rahimzade2, S. Nosrati6, P. Arshiyan7, D. Ben Ammar8
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Background: Mahyaveh is an Iranian salted-fermented fish sauce which due to its high amount of protein has risk of histamine production. This study was carried out to determine effect of Zataria multiflora Essential Oil (EO) on histamine production in mahyaveh.
Methods: Dried anchovies (Stolephorus sp.), refined-salt and mustard seed (Brassica juncea) were purchased from the local market in Bandar Abbas, Iran. Three concentra-tions of EO including 0.1, 1, and 2% v/w were prepared by hydro-distillation of the air-dried powdered of Z. multiflora plant for 3 h, using British-type Clevenger apparatus. Histamine was determined by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Mean values of histamine were compared using SPSS, Inc, Chicago, IL software (v. 16.0).
Results: Most of the samples showed increasing in the level of histamine when storage time was increased. At day 30, histamine level in all treatment samples containing 0.1, 1, and 2% of Z. multiflora EO were significantly lower than control group (p<0.05). However, in days 90 and 120, histamine level in all treatment groups had no significant difference (p>0.05) with control ones except 0.1% EO group. Analysis of four sensory items including color, odor, taste, and overall acceptance indicated that there was no significant difference between mean score of control and treatment groups. Overall ac-ceptance scores in 0, 0.1, 1, and 2% EO were 6.33, 5, 6.33, and 5, respectively.
Conclusion: Z. multiflora EO could effectively serve as potential antimicrobial agent to inhibit histamine production in mahyaveh.